Students often fail to distinguish between the following terms:
Part of the problem is that they try to memorize terms rather than understand the inter-relationships among the terms. One way you can help them see these relationships is to introduce students to concept mapping, a way of drawing a "visual road map" of links between related concepts (Novak & Gowan, 1984, p.15).
You may wish to begin by having students access the following web site:
Mind Tools: Information Skills.
- reliability and validity
- convergent validity and discriminant validity
- random error and bias
- subject bias and observer bias.
However, we just give them a list of the chapter's key terms related to measurement and then have them use the following form.
You could have each student generate their own map. However, we usually have them work in pairs for about 15 minutes. Next, we have them explain their maps with to other pairs. In addition, at the start of the following class period, we often have the pair with the best map explain their map to the entire class.
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