V. Approach #5: Humanism

(a variety of approaches that emphasize personal growth, self-esteem, and the achievement of human potential more than the scientific understanding, prediction, and control of behavior)

A. View of humans:

B. What can't psychology be?

What shouldn't psychology be?

What should it be?

C. Founded by Maslow as the "Third Force" to counteract the two other forces that were dominating psychology:

Force #1 the "over-scientific" attitude of behaviorism and

Force #2 the "over-pessimistic" attitude of psychoanalysis.

Maslow believed strongly in self-actualization:

our innate drive to be the best we can be.

Examples of self-actualization:

D. Problems: Because it wasn't a scientific approach, it has harmed people while trying to help them.

E. Key research discoveries related to humanism

1. Value of training to be a good listener

2. Value of therapist's personal qualities

3. Effectiveness of humanistic therapy

F. Humanism as therapy

1. Less conventional approaches

2. Perls' Gestalt Psychology

3. Rogers' client-centered, non-directive therapy

The cause of your problems--incongruence:

How you became incongruent--conditions of worth:

Two (nondirective) tools for bring you back to congruence:

  1. Unconditional positive regard:

  2. Active listening:

  3.         See how a computer program (Eliza) practices active listening.  (Note: She even has the pauses that Rogerian therapists have)

By now, you should be able to:

  1. Describe the main focus of humanism.

  2. Explain why some humanists think that we cannot be scientifically studied.
  3. Explain why humanism was called the "Third Force."<
  4. Define self-actualization.
  5. Explain how, at least in its early days, the lack of a scientific approach hindered the humanistic approach.
  6. Cite some scientific evidence that supports humanistic therapy.
  7. Explain why followers of Carl Rogers use a nondirective approach.
  8. Describe how a humanist would diagnose and treat a violent individual.
  9. Explain the difference between humanistic therapy and cognitive therapy.
  10. Describe how Perls' therapy differs from Rogers'.
  11. Explain the difference between "unconditional regard" and "conditions of worth."
  12. Explain the difference between "active listening" and every day listening.
  13. Know what an eclectic therapist is.
  14. Be able to understand the following chicken jokes (although you still may not find them funny).
  15. Do well on this "Type that School!" Quiz
  16. Study this review page and go through its tutorial successfully several times.

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