Guide to using the learning objectives
1.
Outline^{3
}two reasons why descriptive methods cannot test causal hypotheses.
2.
Identify
which of the following research goal(s) can be achieved using descriptive methods:
description, prediction, explanation, and control.
3.
Discuss^{2
}how descriptive methods can help researchers predict what will
happen. Provide^{3} an example that is not from your text.
4.
Defend^{4
}the following statement, "We need science when describing behavior."
a.
Provide^{3} four reasons in defense
of the above statement.
b. Generate^{5} a brief explanation
why each of these four reasons is important.
5.
Defend^{4
}the following statement, "The key to getting a representative sample is to
get a large and random sample." Discuss^{2} what each of the following
terms mean as you generate your answer:
a.
representative
b. random
6.
You did
an experiment looking at the effect of chocolate consumption on memory. You also collected data on age, gender
and birth order. Later, you decide to see if birth order is related to memory.
a.
Explain^{2} why this research
(birth order and recall) would be considered ex post facto.
b. Suppose this ex post facto research suggested
that firstborn children had better memory than laterborn children.
i.
Construct^{3} a question to
assess the study's external validity.
ii.
Construct^{3} a question to
assess the study's construct validity.
iii.
Construct^{3}
a question to assess the study's internal validity.
7.
Define^{1}the
term archival data.
8.
Describe^{2}and
provide^{3} an example of each of the following:
a.
collected and coded data
b. collected but uncoded data
9.
Define^{1}content
analysis and explain^{2} why it is valuable.
10.
Describe^{2}an
example of archival data. Criticize^{2} or praise^{2} the internal,
external, and construct validity of archival data.
11.
Examine^{4}the
relationship between archival data and the psychologist's desire to understand
the individual.
12.
Provide^{3}an
example of each of the following:
a.
naturalistic observation
b. participant observation.
13.
Compare^{4
}and contrast^{4} naturalistic and participant observation.
a.
How are they similar?
b. How are they different (be sure
to address their different strengths and weaknesses)?
14.
Imagine
you were going to use observation to study rudeness. Decide^{6} whether
you would use participant observation or naturalistic observation. Justify^{6
}your decision.
15.
Describe^{2
}two problems with using observation. For each problem, discuss^{2}
how you could minimize the problem.
16.
Imagine
you were to study extroversion and had to choose between using observation or using
tests. Compare^{4} the advantages and disadvantages of each in terms of
internal, external, and construct validity. Then, decide^{6 }which
method you would use and justify^{6} your decision.
17.
Draw
a frequency distribution of the following data: 3, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8. Then,
compute the mode, median, and mean of those data. Finally, explain^{2}
why those data are not morally distributed.
18.
Explain
why one might want to do a onesample t
test.
19.
Give^{1} one similarity between
doing a onesample t test and
creating a confidence interval.
20.
Explain^{2}
the advantage(s) of constructing a confidence interval over doing a onesample t test.
21.
Define^{1}positive
correlation, negative correlation, and zero
correlation.
22.
Explain^{2
}how you can determine from a scatterplot graph whether the correlation
(degree of relationship) between 2 variables is positive, negative, or zero.
23.
Generate^{5}a
graph that illustrates the following data on scores on an assertiveness scale and
scores on an extroversion scale:
assertiveness = 8, extroversion = 59
assertiveness = 11, extroversion = 63
assertiveness = 10, extroversion = 57
assertiveness = 7, extroversion = 54
assertiveness = 12, extroversion = 64
24.
Distinguish^{4}between
a relationship described by a Pearson r with a positive sign and one described by
a negative sign.
25.
Explain^{2
}the difference between a strong correlation and a weak correlation.
26.
Fill
in four tables like the table below with the hypothetical results of four studies
that looked at the relationship between participants' skill at winning the game
"Paper, scissors, stone" and participants' gradepoint average. Generate^{5 }results
that would express
a.
A strong positive correlation
b. A strong negative correlation
c.
A weak positive correlation
d. A weak negative correlation

Participant's number of wins in
"paper, rock, scissors" game 

Participant's
Grade Point Average 



Below
Average 
Above
Average 
Below
Average 


Above
Average 


27.
Define^{1}coefficient
of determination. Explain^{2} how to calculate the coefficient
of determination from the Pearson r.
28.
Explain^{2
}(by calculating the coefficient of determination) why
a.
A negative correlation of .50 does not indicate a weaker relationship
than a positive correlation of +.50
b. A correlation of .50 is stronger than
a correlation of +.30
c.
A correlation of Ð50 indicates a
stronger relationship than a correlation of .30
d. A correlation of +0.1 indicates a weak
relationship between variables.
29.
Explain^{2
}why obtaining a correlation of .30 in your sample might not indicate that the two variables are
correlated in the population.
30.
Explain^{2
}why
a.
the correlation between two variables
is more likely to be significantly different from 0 in a study obtaining a
correlation coefficient of .90 between the two than in a study obtaining a
correlation coefficient of .10.
b. the correlation between two variables
is more likely to be significantly different from 0 in a study obtaining a
study based on 100 participants that obtains a correlation coefficient of .30
between two variables than in a study based on 10 participants that obtains the
same .30 correlation.
31.
Explain^{2
}the importance of having a random sample of a population for enabling you
to know whether you can generalize your results to the population.
32.
Define^{1}median
split. Use^{4} a median split (based on introversion scores) to
place the following participants into groups.
Participant 
Introversion
score 
Happiness
score 
Juan 
10 
6 
Sarah 
5 
7 
Albert 
4 
8 
Maria 
9 
9 
33.
Compare^{4
}and contrast^{4} the advantages and disadvantages of using a
median split instead of testing whether the correlation is significantly different
from zeroto look at the relationship between introversion and happiness. (Be
sure to discuss power in your response.)
34.
Explain^{2
}why, in terms of power, statistical tests that use more information, provide
more information. Then, rank^{6} the power of the following: (a) ANOVA,
(b) t test based on a medium split, (c) t test to determine the
significance of a correlation coefficient.
35. Defend^{4}the following statement, "with correlational research, significant results do not allow you to make causeeffect statements."
36.
Explain^{2}why
you might obtain a significant correlation between two variables even though
the variables are not really related (a "false alarm").Then, explain^{2}
what you could do to minimize your chances of having such false alarms.
37.
Generate^{5}four
reasons why you might fail to find a relationship between variables even though
such a relationship exists.