Help with answering Chapter 3 Exercises

1. First, just try to fill in the blanks. If you are stuck, start with some situation that is pretty simple and familiar to you. You might start with something as simple as "Increasing humidity increases aggression." Then, think about when that statement is not true--or when it is most likely to be true. For example, you might say that Increasing humidity increases aggression, depending on temperature. Finally,try to think of how your factor (e.g., humidity) has its effect. Is it simply that they feel more sweaty? Is it that they feel unclean?  Is it that they don't feel like themselves?  Is it that they are attending more to their bodies than they usually do? Think of a reason.

2. To answer this question, your could start by thinking of a common sense idea. If you are stuck, you could just google "English proverbs" or try this site. Then, use GoogleScholar, PsycINFO, PsycArticle, or some other data base to find that proverb in an article's title. If you get stuck, you could simply look for the "girls get prettier at closing time" studies referenced in your text.

3.  See box 3.2, p. 85. If you need more help, these links may help

 4. According to dissonance theory, what is an important variable that mediates attitude change? The feeling of tension called dissonance.

5. Your strategy should be similar to how you would attack question 2 (see above). Remember that if you get stuck, you could at least do a search for an article that had "cognitive dissonance theory" in the title.

6. Describe the relationship between moderator variables and external validity. To the extent that there are moderator variables (variables that moderate the relationship between two variables), it limits that relationship’s external validity. For example, a relationship that exists when the moderator variable is not present may be non-existent or reversed when the moderator variable is present.

7. There is not a set answer. If  you are stuck, the authors, in the first paragraph on page 659, give you some hints.

8. Design a study to test the generalizability of the findings of the study reported in Appendix B. If you are stuck, see the second paragraph on page 659. 


The study reported in Appendix B finds a relationship between variables.  Design a study to map out the functional relationship between those two variables. Alternatively, propose a hypothesis that explores a practical implication of the study’s findings

No set answer.

10. Taking into account the problems with the null hypothesis, discuss what is wrong with the following statements:

    1. There is no difference in outcome among the different psychological therapies.
    2. Viewing television violence is not related to aggression.
    3. There are no gender difference in emotional responsiveness.

All these conclusions are based on assuming that the null hypothesis can proven. It cannot. Failing to find a difference or an effect does not mean there is no difference or no effect. It just means you failed to find a difference.