1. Hints: Do this quiz . If you are still stuck, see Table 1.2.

2. Your friend's memory of his complexion being cleared up may be inaccurate. In addition,

It may have been a coincidence that your friend’s complexion cleared up, other changes in your friend’s life (e.g., getting older, better hygiene) may have affected this, and, even, if giving up chocolate reduced your friend’s acne, we do not know whether that would reduce everyone’s acne.

             3. Hints: Do this quiz . If you are still stuck, reread pages 4-9.

  1. No set answer for the first part. However, for the second part, you should note that operational definitions help psychology to

a.       be objective because they provide objective definitions of terms.

b.      make testable statements because they allow us to define our concepts in specific and observable terms.

c.       be public because operational definitions define terms in publicly observable ways. These “recipes” can be shared.

d.      be productive because the operational definition provides a recipe that other scientists can follow to repeat and build on the original researcher’s study.

5.  Hint: See page 16

6. Objectivity: The accuracy of these “self observations” could not be verified by other observers.

7. Hints: See Table 1.2 on page 22. To learn more about astrology, click here.

8. Iridology may have the following characteristics of science: finds general rules, is open-minded, and is creative. Iridology definitely does not have these characteristics of science: collects objective evidence (because different practitioners are giving the same patient different diagnoses), adopts a skeptical attitude (e.g., some practitioners don’t try to verify their diagnoses), and is public (they hold secret, closed door seminars). Because it lacks these qualities of science, it can’t be productive.

9. Hints: See Table 1.2 on page 22.  For more information about psychoanalysis, click here.


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