RDE Chapter 2 Interactive Exercises: Set B

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1. The professor of a psychology of women class notes that a study claiming that women are more conforming than men could be interpreted as showing that women are more cooperative than men. The professor is probably attacking the _____ validity of that research.

2. A survey finds that Diet Coke drinkers are less irritable than Diet Pepsi drinkers. The investigator concludes that consuming Diet Pepsi causes enhanced irritability. This conclusion lacks _____ validity.
3. Criticism: "The two groups differ, not because of treatment, but by chance." This criticism is questioning ____ validity.
4. Criticism: "The participants studied are not typical of an average cross-section of people." This criticism is questioning ____ validity.
5. Criticism: "The measure used is not very good." This criticism is questioning ____ validity.
6. Criticism: "The groups were not the same before treatment was introduced." This criticism is probably questioning ____ validity.
7. Criticism: "The participants may have guessed the hypothesis and played along." This criticism is questioning ____ validity.
8. Criticism: "The participants may have changed even without treatment, so researcher should not conclude that treatment caused the change." This criticism is questioning ____ validity.
9. Criticism: "The results would not hold in a real-life situation." This criticism is questioning ____ validity.
10. Criticism: "Task was boring and meaningless, so participants were not psychologically involved in the study." This criticism is questioning ____ validity.
11. A rose by any other name would smell as sweet." Perhaps. But if a scale that measured conservatism was used as a "close-mindedness scale," there would be _____ validity problems with conclusions based on this "close-mindedness" scale. 
12. A police officer puts a drunk in a blue room. The prisoner acts in a way that the officer describes as "violent." Then, the officer moves the prisoner to a pink room. This prisoner then acts in a way that the officer describes as "less violent." A scientist doubts that the pink room changed the prisoner´s behavior. Instead, she thinks the change  in the prisoner's behavior may have  nothing to do with the pink room (for example, the prisoner may have calmed down or sobered up by the time he entered the pink room). Thus, the scientist is doubting that the pink room caused the effect. In other words, she is questioning the study´s_____ validity.

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