[a] These cards will test you on the key concepts of Chapter 7. When you see a box, type your answer in that box.

Then, click the Flip back button to check your answer. To get

started, click the Show next card button. To make it more difficult, choose the "Shuffle" option.

[q] If you arrange all the scores from lowest to highest, the middle score will be the [textentry] [c] median [a] Yes, the median is the middle score. [c] mode [a] No, the middle score is the median. [c]* [a] Sorry, the correct answer is median.

[q] 95% of the time, the true value of the population parameter will be in this range [textentry] [c] 95% confidence interval [a] Yes, you were right. [c]* [a] No, the correct answer is 95% confidence interval.

[q] The most common score. [textentry] [c] mode [a] Right! [c]* [a] No, the most common score is the mode.

[q] An average calculated by adding up all the scores and dividing by the number of scores [textentry] [c] mean [a] Correct. [c]* [a] Sorry, the answer is the mean. Perhaps you over-thought this one?

[q] If you have interval or ratio data, you should usually use the ______ as your average. [textentry] [c] mean [a] Correct. [c]* [a] Sorry, with interval or ratio data, you should use the mean unless your data are extremely skewed.

[q] If you have ordinal data, you should use this as your average: the [textentry] [c] median [a] Yes, the median. [c]* [a] Sorry, for ordinal data, you should use the median.

[q] If you have highly skewed data, you should use this as your average: the [textentry] [c] median [a] Yes, the median. [c]* [a] Sorry, for highly skewed data, you should use the median.

[q] With nominal data, the average you should use is the [textentry] [c] mode [a] Yes, with nominal data, the mode is the best average. [c]* [a] Sorry, mode is the term we were looking for.

[q] If the data are highly skewed, the average you should use is the [textentry] [c] median [a] Yes [c] mean [a] No, the mean is a good summary statistic, but, with skewed data, it can be misleading [c]* [a] No, with skewed data, the median is the best average.

[q] squaring the correlation coefficient gives you the coefficient of [textentry] [c] determination [a] Good! [c]* [a] Squaring the correlation coefficient gives you the coefficient of determination.

[q] The percentage of variation accounted for in one variable by knowing the value of another variable is called the [textentry] [c] coefficient of determination [a] Yes. [c]* [a] No, the percentage of variation accounted for in one variable by knowing the value of another variable is called the coefficient of determination.

[q] The Pearson r is a [textentry] [c] correlation coefficient [a]Yes, the Pearson r is a correlation coefficient [c]* [a] No, the Pearson r is a correlation coefficient.

[q]The Pearson r can range from ___ to +1 [textentry] [c]-1 [a] Right [c]* [a] No, the Pearson r can range from -1 to +1.

[q] The coefficient of determination can range from ___ to +1 [textentry] [c] 0 [a]You are correct. [c]* [a] No, the coefficient of determination can range from 0 to +1.

[q] An inverse relationship between two variables would describe a ______ correlation [textentry] [c] negative [a] Correct [c]* [a] An inverse relationship between two variables

would describe a negative correlation.

[q] If you find that the higher a value is on one variable, the lower a value will tend to be on a second variable,

you have a _____ correlation [textentry] [c] negative [a] Right! [c]* [a] No, if you find that the higher a value is on one variable, the lower a value will tend to be on a second variable, you have a negative correlation.

[q] If you find that the higher a value is on one variable, the higher a value will tend to be on a second variable, you have a _____ correlation [textentry] [c] positive [a] Right, again.

[c]* [a] No, if you find that the higher a value is on one variable, the higher a value will tend to be on a second variable, you have a positive correlation.

[q] If you find that the lower a value is on one variable, the lower a value will tend to be on a second variable, you have a _____ correlation [textentry] [c] positive [a] Right!

[c]* [a] No, if you find that the lower a value is on one variable, the lower a value will tend to be on a second variable, you have a positive correlation.

[q] If there is no relationship between your variables, you have a ______ correlation [textentry] [c] 0 [a] Correct. [c] zero [a] Correct [c]* [a] No, you have a zero correlation.

[q] When people perceive a relationship between two variables but such a relationship does not exist, we call their perception a(n) ________ correlation [textentry] [c] illusory [a] Yes!

[c]* [a] No, when people perceive a relationship between two variables but such a relationship does not exist, we call their perception an illusory correlation

[q] the _______ _______ will almost always be smaller than the standard deviation [textentry] [c] standard error; standard error of the mean [a] Correct. [c]* [a] The standard error of the mean will almost always be smaller than the standard deviation because means are more stable than individual scores. (The only exception would be if the standard deviation was 0. In that case, the standard error would also be zero.

[q] The standard deviation of the sample means is called the [textentry] [c] standard error ; standard error of the mean [a] Good! [c]* [a] No, the standard deviation of the sample means is called the standard error.

[q] This measure of the variability of scores around the mean is often roughly one-sixth of the range. [textentry] [c] standard deviation

[a] You are correct. [c]* [a] The standard deviation is a measure of the variability of scores around the mean is often roughly one-sixth of the range (because 99% of the scores are between -3 and +3 standard deviations of the mean)

[q] With a normal curve, 99% of scores are within __ standard deviations of the mean [textentry] [c]3; three [a] Yes [c]* [a] No, With a normal curve, 99% of scores are within 3 standard deviations of the mean

[q] 95% of sample means are within 2 _______ _________ of the population mean [textentry] [c] standard errors [a] Good job. [c]* [a] No, 95% of sample means are within 2 standard errors of the population mean.

[q] To find out whether your data followed a normal distribution, you might look at a [textentry] [c] frequency distribution [a] Yes, a frequency distribution could tell you whether your data were normally distributed. It could also tell you whether your data were skewed. [c]* [a] Sorry, you would probably need to look at a frequency distribution to tell whether your data were normally distributed.

[q] If everyone scores high on one of your measures, you may not find a relationship between your variables because of _________ __ _______[textentry] [c] restriction of range [a]Yes! [c]* [a] Restriction of range of one or both of your variables may result in your not finding a relationship (because, to find a relationship, you must see that variations in one variable are related to variations in the other variable--which can only happen if both variables are varying.

[q] The least reactive form of observation is ________ observation. [textentry] [c] naturalistic [a] Yes [c]* [a] No, the least reactive form of observation is naturalistic observation.

[q] The most reactive form of observation is probably ________ observation[textentry] [c]participant [a] Yes [c]* [a]No, the most reactive form of observation is probably participant observation.

[q]__________ data is usually nonreactive but vulnerable to instrumentation bias[textentry] [c]archival [a] Yes [c]* [a]No, archival data is usually nonreactive but vulnerable to instrumentation bias.

[q]________ _______ is used to attempt to code qualitative data in an objective way. [textentry] [c] content analysis [a] Yes [c]* [a] Sorry, it is content analysis that is used to attempt to code qualitative data in an objective way.

[q] If you go back, after the research has been completed, looking to test hypotheses that were not formulated prior to the beginning of the study, you would be doing. [textentry] [c]ex post facto research [a]Yes, you would be doing ex post facto research. [c]* [a] No, you would be doing ex post facto research.

[q] Changes in measurement, rather than changes in participants, causing changes in participants' scores is called [textentry] [c] instrumentation bias; instrumentation [a] Correct, instrumentation bias. [c]* [a] Sorry, the answer is instrumentation bias.

[q]____ observation is the type of observation in which there is the most control over outside variables [textentry] [c] lab; laboratory [a]Correct [c]* [a]No, laboratory observation is the type of observation in which there is the most control over outside variables.

[q] A variable that seems to alter the relationship between two other variables is called a _______ variable. [textentry] [c]moderator; moderating [a]Right! [c]* [a]Sorry, a moderator variable is one that seems to affect the relationship between two other variables.

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