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1. Internal validity is important if you are to establish that a training program is effective.
2. By carefully choosing your two groups, you can eliminate extraneous variables.
3. Arbitrary assignment to group eliminates selection bias.
4. Matching participants on pretest scores eliminates selection bias.
5. In a two-group (treatment group versus no-treatment group) study, the biggest threat to internal validity is
6. Some 40% shooters may score 50% on a free throw shooting test.
7. Pretest scores are perfect predictors of posttest scores.
8. Groups that are the same on the pretest variable will be the same on all other relevant variables.
9. Selection-maturation interactions can occur because scores are affected by random error.
10. If two groups score the same on the pretest, they may score differently on the posttest­ ­even if neither is given a treatment.
11. Selection by maturation may occur because matched groups may differ from each other in terms of unmatched variables.
12. Which of the following is a more serious threat to the internal validity of a two-group design?

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