[a]These cards will test you on the key concepts of Chapter 11: The Multiple-Group Experiment.

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[q]In an experiment, participants who do not receive any kind of treatment, not even a placebo treatment, would be a(n) _____ _______ _______. [textentry] [c] empty control group [a] Yes, an empty control group. [c]* [a] Those participants should be referred to as an empty control group.

[q] Empty control groups may make your study vulnerable to ________ ______. [textentry] [c] hypothesis-guessing; hypothesis guessing [a] Yes, you were right.[c] confounding variables, subject bias, participant bias [a] You are on the right track, but we were looking for the more specific answer of hypothesis guessing [c]* [a] No, the correct answer is hypothesis-guessing.

[q] In a two-group experiment, an empty control group will harm the experiment's ______ validity.[textentry] [c] construct [a] Right! [c] internal [a] No, as an experiment, such studies have internal validity: We know the manipulation had an effect. Their construct validity, however, may be questionable: We may not know why the treatment manipulation had an effect. [c]* [a]No, experiments with empty control groups may have questionable construct validity because the manipulation's effect may be due to hypothesis-guessing.

[q] Confounding variables that are unrelated to the treatment manipulation may harm a study's ________ validity.[textentry] [c] internal [a] Correct. [c] construct [a] No, these variables may make it look like the treatment had an effect when the difference between the groups had nothing to do with the treatment. So, such confounding variables harm internal validity. [c]* [a] No, the answer is internal.

[q] Confounding variables that are produced by the treatment manipulation may harm a study's ________ validity.[textentry] [c] construct [a] Correct. [c] internal [a] No, when the treatment manipulation has effects other than on what the researcher has labeled the independent variable, the manipulation may have an effect--but not for the reason the researcher thinks. [c]* [a] No, the answer is construct.

[q]If the functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables is best described by a straight line, the relationship between the independent and dependent variable is [textentry] [c] linear [a] Right! [c]* [a] No, that describes a linear relationship. [q]

If the functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables is best described by a line with one or more bends in it, the relationship between the independent and dependent variable is [textentry] [c] nonlinear; curvilinear [a] You got it right. [c]* [a] No, that describes a nonlinear relationship.

[q]If a researcher is interested in seeing the relationship between increasing the independent variable and its effect on the dependent variable over a range of values of the independent variable (e.g., the researcher wants to know whether the relationship is linear or curvilinear), the researcher is interested in the _________ relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. [textentry] [c] functional [a] That's right. [c]* [a] Sorry, the answer is functional.

[q]If one hour of therapy reduces anxiety and two hours of therapy further reduces anxiety, but three hours of therapy does not reduce anxiety any more than than two hours, the functional relationship between therapy and anxiety could be described as [textentry] [c] nonlinear; curvilinear [a] Good! [c]* [a] Sorry, this describes a curvilinear relationship.

[q]If one hour of therapy reduces anxiety by 1 point on a 20-point scale and two hours of therapy further reduces anxiety by another point, and three hours of therapy reduces anxiety by another point, the functional relationship between therapy and anxiety could be described as [textentry] [c] linear; [a] Good! [c]* [a] No, this describes a linear relationship.

[q] A statistical test used to follow up on significant results obtained from an ANOVA test to find out which groups are significantly different from one another.[textentry] [c] post hoc test; post hoc [a] Right! [c]* [a] Post hoc tests was the answer we were looking for.

[q] A graph of your data makes it look like there is a curvilinear functional relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. Before claiming that the relationship is curvilinear, you should do a _____ _____ ______ ________. [textentry] [c] post hoc trend analysis test [a] Very good [c]* [a] Post hoc trend analysis is needed to determine whether the observed curvilinear pattern is a reliable one.

[q]The different amounts or kinds of treatments are referred to as different _______ of the independent variable. [textentry] [c] levels [a] Yes,different amounts or kinds of the treatment are referred to as the different levels of the independent variable. [c]* [a] The correct answer is levels.

[q] The Mean Square Between divided by the Mean Square Within is the ___ _______. [textentry] [c] F-ratio; F ratio; F [a] Good job! [c]* [a] No, the F ratio is the ratio of MSB by MSW.

[q] The between-groups variance divided by within-groups variance is the __ ________.[textentry] [c]F ratio; F; F-ratio [a] Yes! [c]* [a]The right answer is the F-ratio.

[q] If this is below 1, there is little evidence that the treatment has an effect.[textentry] [c]F ratio; F; F-ratio [a] You've got it. [c]* [a]The right answer is the F-ratio.

[q]When two groups are involved, ______ will provide essentially the same results as a t test [textentry] [c]ANOVA; analysis of variance [a] That's right [c] F-test; F test [a] That's correct, but let's use the more formal name: analysis of variance. [c]* [a]Sorry, the answer we were looking for was ANOVA (analysis of variance).

[q]________ is a statistical test that is especially useful when data are interval, and there are more than two groups. [textentry] [c]ANOVA; analysis of variance [a] You're right again. [c] F-test; F test [a] That's correct, but let's use the more formal name: analysis of variance. [c]* [a]ANOVA is better than the t test if you have more than two groups.

[q] For the experiments discussed in this chapter, an _______ involves calculating the between groups variance, calculating the between groups and within-groups degrees of freedom, calculating the within groups varianced, dividing between-groups variance by within-groups variance to get an F-ratio, and then interpreting that ratio. [textentry] [c]ANOVA; analysis of variance [a] That's right [c]* [a]No, the answer is ANOVA (analysis of variance).

[q]________ __________ variance is a measure of how much the group means differ from each other.[textentry] [c]between-groups; between groups; treatment [a]Outstanding! [c]* [a]You should have said between-groups variance or treatment variance.

[q] If all the group means are the same, between groups variance should be ______.[textentry] [c]0; zero [a]Right [c]* [a]The right answer is 0.

[q] If all the scores within each group are the same, within groups variance should be ______.[textentry] [c]0; zero [a]Right [c]* [a]The right answer is 0. [q]_______ ________ variance is an estimate of the combined effects of two factors that would make group means differ: treatment effects plus random error.[textentry] [c]between-groups; between groups; treatment [a]Great! [c]* [a]You should have said either between-groups variance or treatment variance. [q]________ _______ variance is a measure of the degree to which scores within each group differ from each other. [textentry] [c] within-groups; within groups [a]True. [c]* [a]The correct answer is within-groups variance. [q]________ _______ variance is sometimes called error variance because it is a measure of random error. [textentry] [c] within-groups; within groups [a]True. [c]* [a]The correct answer is within-groups variance.

[q]If there is no treatment effect, ________ _______ variance is a measure of random error. [textentry] [c] between-groups; between groups [a]True. [c]* [a]The answer we were looking for is between-groups variance. However, within groups variance is alwasy a measure of random error.

[q]If there is a treatment effect, treatment variance is probably affected by both the treatment and _____ _____. [textentry] [c] random error [a]Right! [c]* [a]No, in that case, treatment variance would be affected by the treatment and also by random error.

[q]If there is a treatment effect, we would expect between-group variance to be ________ than within groups variance. [textentry] [c] bigger; larger; greater [a]Correct! [c]* [a]No, if there is a treatment effect, between group variance should be bigger than within group variance.

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