[a]These cards will test you on the key concepts of Chapter 12: The Factorial Experiment. When you see a box, type your answer in that box.

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[q]A ___ experiment examines two or more independent variables at a time. [textentry] [c] factorial [a] Yes. [c]* [a] The answer is factorial. [q]A factorial experiment examines two or more _________ variables at a time. [textentry] [c] independent [a] Yes. [c] dependent [a] Are you confusing independent and dependent variables? Independent variables are manipulated by the experimenter. [c]* [a] A factorial experiment looks at two or more INDEPENDENT variables at a time.

[q] The effect of varying one independent variable at a specific level of a second independent variable is the definition of a(n) _________[textentry] [c] simple main effect [a] Yes, you were right. [c]* [a] No, the correct answer is simple main effect. [q] A ______ can be obtained from a factorial experiment but could have been obtained merely by doing a simple experiment.[textentry] [c] simple main effect [a] Right! [c]* [a]Sorry, the correct answer is simple main effect.

[q] The simplest factorial design, the 2 X 2 experiment, produces four ______________[textentry] [c] simple main effects [a] Correct. [c]* [a] Sorry, the answer is simple main effects. [q] The simplest factorial design, the 2 X 2 experiment, produces ____ simple main effects[textentry] [c] four; 4 [a] Correct. [c]* [a] Sorry, it produces four simple main effects.

[q] The simplest factorial design, the 2 X 2 experiment, produces ____ main effects[textentry] [c] two; 2 [a] Correct. [c]* [a] No, it produces two main effects. [q] The simplest factorial design, the 2 X 2 experiment, produces two _______.[textentry] [c] main effects; overall main effects [a] Correct. [c]* [a]Sorry, the answer we were looking for is that the 2 X 2 factorial produces two main effects.

[q] The average of a variable's simple main effects is the ________ [textentry] [c] main effect; overall main effect [a] Right! [c]* [a] The correct answer is main effect.

[q] The average effect of varying an independent variable in an experiment is that variable's _______. [textentry] [c] main effect; overall main effect [a] Yes, that's the variable's overall main effect. [c]* [a] The right answer is that variable's main effect.

[q] Suppose we are randomly assigning participants both to one of two levels of A (A1 or A2) and to one of two levels of B(B1 or B2). From this you know that we are conducting a _______ experiment. [textentry] [c] factorial [a] Right! [c]* [a] No, this describes a factorial experiment.

[q] Suppose we are randomly assigning participants both to one of two levels of A (A1 or A2) and to one of two levels of B(B1 or B2). If we are interested in how varying A affects the B1 groups, we are interested in the _______ effect of A for the B1 group.[textentry] [c] simple main [a] You got it. [c]* [a] No, this is the simple main effect of A for the B1 group.

[q] Suppose we are randomly assigning participants both to one of two levels of A (A1 or A2) and to one of two levels of B(B1 or B2). If we are interested in how varying A affects the B1 groups differently from how varying A affects the B2 groups, we are interested in the _______ effect.[textentry] [c] interaction; A X B; A X B interaction; A by B interaction [a] You got it. [c]* [a] Sorry, the answer we were looking for was the interaction effect.

[q] Suppose we are randomly assigning participants both to one of two levels of A (A1 or A2) and to one of two levels of B(B1 or B2). If we are interested in the average effect of varying A, we are interested in the _______ effect.[textentry] [c] A main; main effect; main [a] Yes! [c]* [a] Sorry, the answer we were looking for was the A main effect.

[q]When the effect of combining two variables is different than the sum of their individual effects, there is a(n) ____________ [textentry] [c] interaction [a] Yes, when combining variables produces an effect that could not be predicted just from knowing their individual effects, there is an interaction. [c] dependent variable [a] Don't confuse dependent variable (the key MEASURED variable) with independent variable (the MANIPULATED variable). [c]* [a] The correct answer is independent variable.

[q]If you need to know how much of one variable participants have received to say what the effect of another variable is, you have a(n) _____________________. [textentry] [c] interaction [a] Right! [c]* [a] No, this is an interaction-- the effect of one variable DEPENDS on the level of the other variable.

[q] If the simple main effect of a variable is different in one condition than in another, there is a(n) [textentry] [c] interaction [a] Good! [c]* [a]The correct answer is interaction. [q] If the lines in a graph of your data are not parallel, you may have a(n) ________ [textentry] [c] interaction [a] Yes! [c]* [a] You may have an interaction--but you will need to do statistical tests to be sure.

[q] When an independent variable seems to have more of an effect under one level of a second independent variable than under another level, there is a(n) ________ interaction. [textentry] [c]ordinal [a] Good! [c]* [a]The right answer is ordinal interaction. If you think you treat your data as though it were interval when it is really ordinal, it may SEEM like a treatment is having more of an effect in one condition than another, even though it doesn't. It is, of course, possible that a treatment does have more of an effect in one condition than in another.

[q]________ interactions may result from ceiling or floor effects. [textentry] [c]ordinal; [a]Yes, measures that have low ceilings or high floors may create the illusion that a treatment has less of an effect in one condition than in another. [c]* [a]No, ordinal interactions may be an illusion caused by not having only ordinal data--and ceiling effects and floor effects may cause you to have ordinal data. [q]If you graph an ordinal interaction, the lines will not be parallel, but they will not _________. [textentry] [c]cross [a]Correct [c]* [a] The lines will not cross because the lines will not be going in opposite directions. They will not be going in opposite directions because the treatment does not have one effect in one condition and the opposite effect in another.

[q]Ordinal interactions are sometimes an artifact of having ________ data. [textentry] [c]ordinal [a]Right! [c]* [a]With ordinal data, it is sometimes hard to know whether a treatment is having more of an effect in one condition than another.

[q]If the effect of a treatment or combination of treatments is underestimated because the dependent measure cannot distinguish between participants who have somewhat high and those who have very high levels of the construct, there is a(n) _______ .[textentry] [c] ceiling effect [a] Correct [c] floor effect [a] No, a floor effect would occur if the measure had trouble giving LOW enough scores to LOW scorers [c]* [a]Sorry, the answer is ceiling effect.

[q]If the effect of a treatment or combination of treatments is underestimated because the dependent measure cannot distinguish between participants who have somewhat low and those who have very low levels of the construct, there is a(n) _______ .[textentry] [c] floor effect [a] Correct

[c] ceiling effect [a]No, a ceiling effect would occur if the measure had trouble giving HIGH enough scores to participants who were HIGH on the variable [c]* [a]No, the answer is floor effect.

[q]A(n)________ effect, by producing ordinal rather than interval data for higher scorers, may cause an ordinal interaction.[textentry] [c]ceiling [a]Right! [c] floor [a] No, a floor effect could produce ordinal data for LOWER scorers, not higher scorers. [c]* [a]Sorry, the answer we were looking for was ceiling effect.

[q]A(n)________ effect, by producing ordinal rather than interval data for lower scorers, may cause an ordinal interaction.[textentry] [c]floor [a]Right! [c] ceiling [a] It looks like you mixed up ceiling and floor effects. [c]* [a]Sorry, the answer we were looking for was floor effect.

[q]With a ceiling effect, a measure, when it comes to high scores, produces ______ rather than interval data.[textentry] [c]ordinal [a]Yes! [c]* [a]When there is a ceiling effect in a study that uses a factorial design, a measure's low ceiling produces ordinal data which may create an ordinal interaction.

[q]With a floor effect, a measure, when it comes to low scores, produces ______ rather than interval data.[textentry] [c]ordinal [a]Yes! [c]* [a]When there is a floor effect in a study that uses a factorial design, a measure's high floor produces ordinal data which may create an ordinal interaction.

[q]Although opposites, both a floor effect and a ______ effect may create ordinal interactions.[textentry] [c]ceiling [a]Yes! [c]* [a]No, the opposite of a floor effect is a ceiling effect.

[q]When an independent variable has one kind of effect in the presence of one level of a second independent variable, but a different kind of effect in the presence of a different level of the second independent variable, there is a()______. [textentry] [c]crossover interaction ;cross-over interaction; disordinal interaction [a]You got it. [c] interaction [a] Yes, there is an interaction, but we were hoping you would say the type of interaction: a disordinal interaction. [c]* [a]No, the right answer is crossover interaction, also known as a disordinal interaction.

[q]If you have a disordinal interaction, a line graph of your means will have lines that ________ [textentry] [c]cross [a]That is correct. [c]* [a]No, the answer is cross, which you probably would have gotten if we had used the other name for disordinal interactions: crossover interactions.

[q] ________ interactions cannot be explained as artifacts of having ordinal, rather than interval, data. [textentry] [c]crossover; cross-over; disordinal [a]That is correct. [c]* [a]No, disordinal interactions are called disordinal interactions because they cannot be explained as artifacts of having ordinal, rather than interval, data.

[q] ________ interactions cannot be due to ceiling or floor effects. [textentry] [c]crossover; cross-over; disordinal [a]That is correct. [c]* [a]No, crossover(disordinal) interactions cannot be explained as artifacts of ceiling effects or floor effects producing ordinal, rather than interval, data.

[q]If the lines of a graph of the means of a factorial design are parallel, you probably do not have a(n) _________. [textentry] [c]interaction [a]Right! [c]* [a]No, if the lines are parallel, they have the same slope. That is, they are changing at the same rate as they go from left to right across the graph. In other words, varying the independent variable on the x-axis is having the same effect on the groups represented by the first line as it is one the groups represented by the second line.

[q]A_____ ______ is sometimes included in a factorial design to see whether an effect generalizes to slightly different conditions. [textentry] [c]replication factor [a]You are correct [c]* [a]Sorry, the answer we were looking for was replication factor.

[q] A replication factor will often be ____ _____ so that researchers can see whether the treatment effect generalizes across more than one kind of material. [textentry] [c] stimulus sets; stimulus set [a] Correct. [c]* [a]]Sorry, the answer we were looking for was stimulus sets.

[q] A______ ________ is a study that varies from the original study only in some minor aspect, such as using different stimulus materials. [textentry] [c]systematic replication [a]Yes! [c]* [a]No, a systematic replication is a study that varies from the original study only in some minor aspect.

[q]If you include stimulus set as a factor in your design, your study, in a sense, contains a _______ ________. [textentry] [c]systematic replication [a]You got it [c]replication [a] In a sense, it contains a replication, but you did not specify the type of replication, which is a systematic replication. [c}replication factor [a] It does contain the replication factor of stimulus sets, which allows it, in a sense, to contain a systematic replication. [c]* [a]Sorry, the answer we were looking for was systematic replication.

[q] A factorial design in which participants are first divided into groups on a participant variable (e.g., low-IQ group and high-IQ group, and then participants from each group are randomly assigned to experimental condition. [textentry] [c]blocked design [a]Right! [c]* [a]The answer is blocked design

[q]A ______ _______ is a factorial design that will usually be more powerful than a simple, between subjects design. [textentry] [c]blocked design [a]Right! [c]* [a]The answer is blocked design [q]A factorial experiment that includes a ______ _______ will usually produce more generalizable results than a simple, between subjects design. [textentry] [c]replication factor [a]Right! [c]* [a]Sorry, replication factor is the answer we were looking for.

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