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[q] _______ designs are powerful because they (a) eliminate between-subject error and (b) get more than one observation per participant. [textentry] [c] within-subjects; repeated measures [a] Yes. [c]* [a] The answer is within-subjects designs.

[q] Of all the designs, within-subjects designs give you the greatest _______ with the fewest participants. [textentry] [c] power [a] Yes, you were right. [c]* [a] No, the big advantage of within-subjects designs is power.

[q] Within-subjects designs are also called ______ _______ designs because they get more than one observation per participant. [textentry] [c] repeated-measures; repeated measures [a] Yes. [c]* [a] Within-subjects designs are also called repeated measures designs because they get more than one observation per participant.

[q] One reason within-subjects designs are more powerful than between-subjects designs is that within-subjects designs get more than one ________ per participant. [textentry] [c] observation; score [a] Correct. [c]* [a] Sorry, the answer is that within-subjects designs get more than one observation per participant.

[q] __________ is what allows the matched-pairs design to usually have more power than a simple experiment. [textentry] [c] matching [a] Correct. [c]* [a] No, matching is what gives the matched pairs design its power.

[q] The dependent groups t test is also called ________ t test. [textentry] [c] within-subjects [a] Good job. [c]* [a] The correct answer is within-subjects t test.

[q] You should use the independent t test to analyze the results of a _______ experiment. [textentry] [c] simple [a] Yes, you chose the right design for that test. [c]* [a] For simple experiments, you should use an independent t test.

[q] You should use the ________ t test to analyze the results of a matched pairs experiment. [textentry] [c] dependent; within-subjects [a] Yes, you chose the right design for that test. [c]* [a] For matched pairs experiments, you should use the dependent t test.

[q] ___________ is a statistical test for analyzing matched-pairs designs or within-subjects designs that use only two levels of the treatment. [textentry] [c] dependent groups t test; dependent t test; within-subjects t test [a] Correct!. [c]* [a] Sorry, the answer we were looking for was dependent groups t test.

[q] In a ______ ______ ________ design, to control for order effects, researchers randomly determine which treatment a participant gets first, which the participant gets second, and so on. [textentry] [c] randomized within-subjects; randomized within subjects [a] You got it. [c]* [a] Sorry, the answer we were looking for was The answer is randomized within-subjects design.

[q] In a randomized within-subjects design, to control for order effects, researchers randomly assign participants to different ________ of treatments. [textentry] [c] sequences [a] Good job. [c]* [a] No, in a randomized within-subjects design, researchers randomly assign participants to different sequences of treatments.

[q] Another word for a trials effect (e.g., that participants score differently on the first trial than on the second trial) is a(n) ________ effect. [textentry] [c] order [a] Right, a trials effect is an order effect [c] sequence [a] No, you are confusing order effects with sequence effects. [c]* [a] No, order is whether a treatment comes first or second.

[q] In a two-level, within-subjects experiment, ________ is whether participants get Treatment 1 and then Treatment 2 or participants get Treatment 2 and then Treatment 1, It is a between-subjects variable. [textentry] [c] sequence [a] Yes! [c]* [a] No, sequence is a between-subjects variable.

[q] If participants score higher on the last trial than on the first, there is a(n) ______ effect. [textentry] [c] order [a] Correct. [c]* [a] No, this is an order (trials) effect: The order in which a participant gets a treatment (e.g., first or second) affects the participant's response.

[q] ______ effects are probably the biggest problem with within-subjects designs. [textentry] [c] order [a] Good! [c]* [a] No, order effects are probably the biggest problem with within-subjects designs.

[q] Order effects may be due to _______ effects, fatigue effects, carryover effects, or sensitization. [textentry] [c] practice [a] Right! [c]* [a] No, order effects may be due to practice effects, fatigue effects, carryover effects, or sensitization.

[q] Order effects may be due to practice effects, fatigue effects, _______ effects, or sensitization. [textentry] [c] carry over; carry-over; treatment carryover; treatment carry-over [a] Right! [c]* [a] No, order effects may be due to practice effects, fatigue effects, carryover effects, or sensitization.

[q] In a within-subjects design, _______ effects might cause an improvement over trials that might be incorrectly interpreted as a treatment effect.[textentry] [c] practice [a] Right! [c]* [a] Sorry, practice effects might cause an improvement that might be incorrectly interpreted as a treatment effect.

[q] _______ effects could be viewed as negative practice effects.[textentry] [c] fatigue [a] Good job. [c]* [a] The answer we were looking for was that fatigue effects could be viewed as negative practice effects.

[q] In within-subjects designs, _____ could harm both internal validity and construct validity.[textentry] [c] sensitization [a] Right! [c]* [a] The answer we were looking for was that sensitization could harm both internal validity and construct validity.

[q] In within-subjects designs, sensitization could harm both ________ validity and construct validity.[textentry] [c] internal [a] Right! [c]* [a] The answer we were looking for was that sensitization could harm both internal validity and construct validity.

[q] Fatigue effects refer to a _________ in performance on the dependent measure due as the experiment continues. [textentry] [c] decrease; decline [a] Correct [c]* [a] Fatigue effects refer to decreased performance on the dependent measure due to being tired or less enthusiastic as the experiment continues.

[q] Carryover effects refers to the lingering or delayed effects of a ________ administered earlier in the experiment. [textentry] [c] treatment [a] Yes! [c]* [a] Treatment is the answer we were looking for.

[q] __________ the time between treatments may reduce carryover effects. [textentry] [c] lengthening; increasing [a] Right, with more time, the effects of an earlier treatment are less likely to linger. [c]* [a] Lengthening the time between treatments may reduce carryover effects.

[q] Giving participants extensive warm-up may reduce ________ effects. [textentry] [c] practice [a] Right, you may be able to get most of the effects of practice to occur before the study starts. [c]* [a] The idea is to reduce practice effects during the study by getting most of the effects of practice to occur before you start collecting data.

[q] _____________ refers to the problem that after getting several different treatments and performing the dependent-variable task several times, participants in a within-subjects design may realize what the hypothesis is. [textentry] [c]sensitization [a] Good! [c]* [a]The right answer is sensitization.

[q] One aspect of sensitization is that the participant becomes aware of what the hypothesis is. Being aware of what the hypothesis is and then possibly playing along with the hypothesis, makes sensitization a threat to ________ validity. [textentry] [c]construct [a] Good! [c]* [a]The right answer is construct validity because the participant is acting to please the experimenter rather than genuinely reacting to the treatment manipulation.

[q] One aspect of sensitization is that the participant is more aware of what the hypothesis is during later trials than in earlier trials. Becoming aware of what the hypothesis during the later trials may create an order effect which could harm the study's ______ validity. [textentry] [c] internal [a] Good! [c] construct [a] No, although sensitization does harm construct validity, order effects harm internal validity. Sensitization harms construct validity by helping the participant play along with the hypothesis. Sensitization harms internal validity by making the participant behave differently on later trials than on earlier trials. This order effect harms internal validity because it could be mistaken for a treatment effect. [c]* [a] An order effect could be mistaken for a treatment effect--and if your study suggests that a treatment caused an effect when it didn't, your study lacks internal validity.

[q]___________ designs balance out routine order effects. [textentry] [c]counterbalanced within-subjects; counterbalanced [a]Correct. [c]* [a]No, it is counterbalanced within-subjects designs that balance out routine order effects.

[q]Counterbalanced designs balance out _____ order effects. [textentry] [c]routine; predictable; linear [a]That's right. [c]* [a]No, counterbalanced within-subjects designs balance out routine order effects.

[q]Counterbalanced designs have the treatment variable as a _______- subjects variable. [textentry] [c]within [a]That's right. [c]* [a]No, in counterbalanced designs, treatment is a within-subjects variable.

[q]Counterbalanced designs have the variable of ______ as a between- subjects variable. [textentry] [c]sequence; counterbalancing; counterbalanced sequence [a]Correct. [c]* [a]No, in counterbalanced designs, sequence is a between-subjects variable: Different participants are randomly assigned to different sequences.

[q] Counterbalanced designs have the variable of order as a _____- subjects variable. [textentry] [c]within [a]Yes. [c]* [a]No, in counterbalanced designs, order is a within-subjects variable.

[q] If participants getting good news and then bad news are in a worse mood than participants getting bad news and then good news, there is a(n) ______ effect.[textentry] [c] sequence [a] Good job [c]* [a]Sorry, If participants getting good news and then bad news are in a worse mood than participants getting bad news and then good news, there is a sequence effect.

[q] In a counterbalanced design, all participants get all the different levels of the treatment variable, but different groups get the treatments in different sequences. Therefore, the counterbalanced design is also a(n) _____ design.[textentry] [c]mixed [a]Right! [c]* [a]Sorry, the answer we were looking for was that the counterbalanced design is a mixed design.

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