Guide to using the learning objectives

Learning Objectives for Chapter 13: Matched Pairs, Within-Subjects, and Mixed Designs



Pages 519-531


1.                State1 two weaknesses of the between-subjects design.

2.                Explain2 why the matched pairs design has (a) as much internal validity as a simple experiment and (b) more power than a simple experiment.

3.                Describe2 the steps involved in creating a matched-pairs design.

4.                List1four questions to consider when contemplating use of a matched-pairs design.Demonstrate3 your understanding of these four questions by (a) providing answers to these four questions that would discourage you from using a matched-pairs  design, (b) explaining why those answers would discourage you  from using a matched-pairs design, (c) providing answers to those four questions that would encourage you to use a matched-pairs design, and (d) explaining why those answers would encourage you to use a matched-pairs design.

5.                Defend4 the following statement, "with a matched-pairs design you cannot use a regular between-subjects t test."

6.                Examine4 the advantages and disadvantages of using a matched-pairs design.



Pages 531-541


7.                Explain2 why a within-subjects design can also be called a "repeated-measures design."

8.                Explain2 how a within-subjects design could be considered a more extreme form of a matched-pairs design.

9.                Outline3 how a within-subjects design increases power.

10.           Illustrate3 the impact of order on the internal validity of a within-subjects design. Include a discussion2 of each of the following in your response:

a.     practice effects

b.    fatigue effects

c.     treatment carryover effects

d.    sensitization.

11.           Examine4 how order effects can be minimized. Include a discussion2 of each of the following in your response:

a.     minimizing each of the four sources (practice, fatigue, carryover, and sensitization) of order effects,

b.    minimizing the number of conditions,

c.     balancing out order effects.

12.           Distinguish4 between a randomized within-subjects design and a matched-pairs design. Be sure to address randomization, analysis of data, power, order effects, and external validity.


Pages 541-552



13.           Explain2 why a counterbalanced within-subjects design is more likely to balance out routine order effects than a pure, randomized within-subjects design.

14.           Imagine that you have 20 participants and four levels of treatment.  Produce5 a Latin Square to illustrate3 use of a counterbalanced within-subjects design.

15.           Distinguish4 between sequence effects and order effects.

16.           All participants take a test composed of 20 easy questions and 20 difficult questions. Half of the participants receive the easy questions first (followed by the difficult questions), the other half receive the difficult questions first (followed by the easy questions).

a.     Outline3 what a significant treatment effect would indicate.

b.    Outline3 what a significant sequence effect would indicate.

c.     Outline3 what a significant order effect would indicate.

17.           Outline3 the advantages and disadvantages of counterbalancing.

18.           List1three instances in which you should use a counterbalanced design.



Pages 552-560



19.           You want to compare two levels of an independent variable.  Analyze4 when you should choose to use each of the following:

a.     matched-groups design

b.    pure within-subjects design

c.     2 x 2counterbalanced design

d.    simple (two-group, between-subjects)experiment.

20.           You want to examine the effects of two independent variables.  Analyze4 when you shouldchoose to use each of the following:

a.     within-subjects factorial design

b.    between-subjects factorial design

21.           List1 three criteria that you could use to determine whether a factor should be a between-subjects factor or a within-subjects factor.

22.           Define1mixed design. Describe2 the advantages of using a mixed design.



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